### Assessment Instructions

#### Preparation

Read Assessment 2 Context (linked in the Resources) to learn about the concepts used in this assessment. This assessment contains two parts. Follow the instructions provided for each part. Submit both parts of your assessment as Word documents.

#### Part 1: Interpreting Correlations

A meta-analysis (Anderson & Bushman, 2001) reported that the average correlation between time spent playing video games (X) and engaging in aggressive behavior (Y) in a set of 21 well-controlled experimental studies was *r*+ = .19. This correlation was judged to be statistically significant. In your own words, what can you say about the nature of the relationship? Write a one-page response to this question.

#### Part 2: Correlations

You will use the following resources for this assessment. They are linked in the Resources.

- Complete this part of the assessment using the
**DAA Template.**
- Read the
**SPSS Data Analysis Report Guidelines** for a more complete understanding of the DAA Template and how to format and organize your assessment.
- Refer to
**IBM SPSS Step-By-Step Instructions: Correlations** for additional information on using SPSS for this assessment.
- If necessary, review the
**Copy/Export Output Instructions** to refresh your memory on how to perform these tasks. As with your previous two assessments, your submission should be narrative with supporting statistical output (table and graphs) integrated into the narrative in the appropriate place (not all at the end of the document).

You will analyze the following variables in the **grades.sav** data set:

- gender.
- gpa.
- total.
- final.

##### Step 1: Write Section 1 of the DAA

Provide a context of the **grades.sav** data set. Include a definition of the specified variables and corresponding scales of measurement. Indicate the type of correlation for each X, Y pair (for example, Pearson’s *r*, Spearman’s *r*, point-biserial *r*, et cetera). Specify the sample size of the data set.

##### Step 2: Write Section 2 of the DAA

Test the assumptions of correlation for **gpa** and **final**. Paste the SPSS histogram output for each variable and discuss your visual interpretations. Paste SPSS descriptives output showing skewness and kurtosis values and interpret them. Paste SPSS scatter plot output with gpa set to the horizontal axis and final set to the vertical axis. Conduct a visual inspection of the scatter plot to analyze other assumptions of correlation. Summarize whether or not the assumptions of correlation are met.

##### Step 3: Write Section 3 of the DAA

Specify a research question related to **gpa** and **final**. Articulate the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Specify your alpha level.

##### Step 4: Write Section 4 of the DAA

Paste the SPSS output of the intercorrelation matrix for all specified variables.

- First, report the
**lowest magnitude** correlation in the intercorrelation matrix, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, *p* value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.
- Second, report the
**highest magnitude** correlation in the intercorrelation matrix, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, *p* value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Specify whether or not to reject the null hypothesis for this correlation.
- Third, report the correlation between
**gpa** and **final**, including degrees of freedom, correlation coefficient, *p* value, and effect size. Interpret the effect size. Analyze the correlation in terms of the null hypothesis.

##### Step 5: Write Section 5 of the DAA

Discuss the implications of this correlation as it relates to the research question. Conclude with an analysis of the strengths and limitations of correlational analysis.

##### Reference

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. *Psychological Science*, *12*(5), 353–359.

#### APA Resources

Because this is a psychology course, you need to format this assessment according to APA guidelines. Additional resources about APA can be found in the Research Resources in the courseroom navigation menu. Use the resources to guide your work.

- American Psychological Association. (2010).
*Publication manual of the American Psychological Association* (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

#### Required Resources

The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

##### Data Set Instructions

These are the same instructions provided in Assessment 1.

##### Assessment Template and Output Instructions

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

SHOW LESS

- Correlation versus causation:
- If correlation does not imply causation, what does it imply?
- Are there ever any circumstances when a correlation can be interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between two variables?
- If yes, what circumstances?

- Application of correlation:
- Is there a research question from your professional life or career specialization that can be addressed by a correlation?
- Why would a correlation be the appropriate analysis for this research question?
- What are the variables and their scale of measurement?
- What is the expected outcome (positive, negative, no relationship)?