Introduction to IT and IS IT-101

Annual Report

FY [Year]

[Add a quote here from one of your company executives or use this space for a brief summary of the document content.]


Introduction to IT and IS



·      You must submit two separate copies (one Word file and one PDF file) using the Assignment Template on Blackboard via the allocated folder. These files must not be in compressed format.

·      It is your responsibility to check and make sure that you have uploaded both the correct files.

·      Zero mark will be given if you try to bypass the SafeAssign (e.g. misspell words, remove spaces between words, hide characters, use different character sets or languages other than English or any kind of manipulation).

·      Email submission will not be accepted.

·      You are advised to make your work clear and well-presented. This includes filling your information on the cover page.

·      You must use this template, failing which will result in zero mark.

·      You MUST show all your work, and text must not be converted into an image, unless specified otherwise by the question.

·      Late submission will result in ZERO mark.

·      The work should be your own, copying from students or other resources will result in ZERO mark.

·      Use Times New Roman font for all your answers.


Name: ###


CRN: ###

  ID: ###





1 Mark

Learning Outcome(s):

Interpret the management challenges faced by information systems being implemented in organizations today, and how they affect business and society.







Question One

In order for IT to be successful in business, the organization must plan how to use information technology. There are two different methodologies used for that, including the scenario approach and competitive advantage planning, explain each methodology, and discuss the differences between them?

1 Mark
Learning Outcome(s):

Interpret the management challenges faced by information systems being implemented in organizations today, and how they affect business and society







Question Two

Enhancing and optimizing customer retention and loyalty is a major business strategy. Explain why, and list two examples of companies which follow this strategy.


1 Mark
Learning Outcome(s):

State the basic concepts of computer hardware and software.







Question Three

Companies are turning to Customer Relationship Management (CRM) to improve their customer focus. List and explain two of the major application components of a CRM system.



1 Mark
Learning Outcome(s):

Demonstrate the use of emerging technology drivers such as Electronic Business, Data Mining and Networking solutions.




Question Four

Geographical information systems (GIS) and Data Visualization Systems (DVS) are ones of the categories of the Decision Support Systems (DSS).

Discuss how China was able to use these systems in fighting the spreading of Coronavirus COVID-19.

Make sure you reference your work; some marks will be taken if no reference is included.



Project Details

Project Details

This project will be divided into three parts.

Problem’s Details #1
Word counts: 1500words

“Human Resource Management has been considered as the key to sustainable competitive edge, as HR role today are
more involved in both designing and implementing companies, strategies.”

Problem: Critically discuss the strategic role of human resouce management in an organization.

What to include: The purpose of this project assassement is to familiarise you with the strategic role of human resource
management today in contributing to the competitive advantage of a firm through its people. You must adopt a critical
discussion in this assignment. Your discussion must be supported by academic literature and a thorough literature review
of this topic is required. You should not merely reproduce paragraphs of descriptive details on the various HR roles and
functions, as this is not the purpose of this assessment. You may support your discussions with some practical examples drawn
from some orgranizations.
Problem’s Details #2
Word counts: 3000words

Problem: Critically discuss the importance of employee engagement and the HR strategies that organizations can adopt
to enhance the commitment of employees towards achieving the goals.

Problem’s Details #3

Word counts: 4000words
Please read the following case study in the attached files below:
“HBR’s Maximizing Your Return on People” (March,2007)


Problem: Your are required conduct a survey on your organization with the “HCM Survey” tool on the artical in the link
above – “Maximizing Your Return on People, Harvard Business Review (March,2007) and critically discuss how to improve the
business performance of your organization.

Research Methods for Engineering Projects

Research Methods for Engineering Projects


Prepare a formal written report:

Prepare a Word document with a Title page and write formally (i.e. avoid use of “I” or casual terms). Parts 1 to 3 of 2,500 words maximum (excluding tables).
Also References (essential) and Appendices (if needed). Minimum 12 point font for text (9 for tables). For calculations show (preferably tabulated) formula; data; workings and results. To assist you with your coursework preparation please refer to the Marking Guidelines provided on the final pages.


Part1: Understanding Customers.

-Demonstrates excellence and authoritative grasp in the use of different approaches for the field research of users and end user value analysis with a critical appraisal of user-centred research.

Part 2: Quantitative Data Analysis

– Authoritative evaluation and conclusions, demonstrating exceptional clarity including insights into user requirements and critique for market segments as well as anticipated router needs.

Part 3: Field Research Proposal

Demonstrates excellence in the interpretation, advanced evaluation and communication of end user perspectives and to plan field research (with objectives; flow chart) with proposals justified.


Part 1. Understanding Customers                  

You support a firm which is a manufacturer of (low speed) electric mobility vehicles with the potential to develop electric motorcycles that are of moderate performance, are highly “durable” with the option of purchasing a spare battery and charger. Consumers comments on social media indicate concerns about how well electric vehicles will suit their lifestyles.


  1. Examine the data below of consumer driving patterns for car journeys and ownership:


  1. Assess the likely interest in electric motorcycles for three consumer groups: Segments A; B and C where ‘A’ ‘B’ and ‘C’ are the last 3 (non-zero, non-repeating) digits of your student
  2. Take the customer perspective and identify (preferably tabulated) their “Needs/Wants” as well as any likely product related “Fears/Concerns”.


Segment data: Low Mileage (<10,000 per year)

Groups 1, 4 & 7

Medium Mileage (10,000 to 20,000

per year) Groups 2, 5 & 8

High Mileage (>20,000 per year)

Groups 3, 6 & 9

Miles per day: 20















Typical Ownership: Group 1: Up to lease (3 years) Group 2: Up to lease (3 years) Group 3: Up to lease

(3 years)

Group 4: 5 to 8 years Group 5: 5 to 8 years Group 6: 5 to 8 years
Group 7: Till end of life Group 8: Till end of life Group 9: Till end of life


  1. The firm decides to offer as a USP (Unique Selling Point) a free 2-year subscription to a carsharing service where members may book vehicles from 30 minutes up to a few months, online or by phone. A smartphone or smartcard is used to pick up and return the car at specified locations – with charges for the vehicle usage. How might you conduct field research (on behalf of the firm) into the likely consumer reaction to this USP?

Part 2. Quantitative Data Analysis                

A firm that design and manufactures consumer electronics equipment has obtained some market research results on the average time spent online per day by different types of households. Examine the table below for three household groups: Segments A; B and C where ‘A’ =4‘B’=3 and ‘C’=4.



Segment data:


Time    online            per day (hours)

Segment 1






Segment 2






Segment 3






Segment 4






Segment 5






Segment 6






Segment 7






Segment 8






Segment 9







  1. Examine the market characteristics for Segment A; Segment B and Segment C:


  1. Use Standard Deviation to examine how diverse online usage is for each


  1. Comment on the level of online usage (Range; Median etc..) of your 3



  1. The firm you are advising has three Smart Home control units as shown in the table which are engineered to handle (occasional) peaks of 40% above the Normal usage:


Device specification: Low capacity Price £180/unit Medium capacity Price £320/unit High capacity Price £450/unit
Normal usage 4 hours per day 6 hours per day 8 hours per day


  1. Which product would you recommend for each of your three groups: Segment A; Segment B and Segment C? Show your workings and


  1. What is the likelihood (probability) that online usage for a new household is below the upper quartile of the (maximum) product capacity for each of your groups?




Part 3. Field Research Proposal                  


3D printing (a form of “additive manufacturing”) is a process of making three dimensional solid objectives from a digital file. A manufacturer of 3D printers is looking to expand their market into small/micro sized businesses that typically lack knowledge of this process.


Research Proposal: propose (and justify) field research (and visualise the findings) into 3D printer usage: user service experiences and technology acceptance in an industrial context.


Hint: consider the “Research Wheel” and ‘Inductive’ vs ‘Deductive’ research approaches.



technical report



Assessment Task


As a motive to writing your portfolio imagine a context, like a company or organisation you work for, for example consider the following scenario (you can pick another if you like as a frameork for your system security portfolio):


Oppression Watch is a rights organisation supplying legal advice, counselling and information to a vulnerable group. Having many political enemies, foreign and domestic, online  and offline, the organisation is a high exposure target.


As a member of the software security and privacy task force you are to audit and make recommendations for the transformation of their systems, policies and processes.




You are to consider the areas of:


  • Data storage, integrity, privacy, compliance.
  • Secure communication for both organisational staff and clients
  • System hardening, including servers, offices, and mobile devices
  • Personnel and operational security



Your portfolio should include an understanding and appreciation of a range techniques related to the principles and technologies of cyber security in practical application. In particular you should demonstrate awareness of:


  • Threat and vulnerability modelling, risk prioritisation
  • Anticipation of emerging threats
  • Access control, authorisation
  • Defensive system design principles, in depth and breadth
  • Scope, lifecycle, maintenance and sustainability
  • Technologies, options for technical implementation
  • Encryption for communications and storage
  • Policies , monitoring, response plans
  • Cost, roles, skills and human resources
  • Trade-offs, compromises and push-backs




A 3000 word concise technical report will for the basis of your portfolio, and it may include screenshots, terminal logs, tables, lists, flow diagrams, or any other appropriate graphics or formulae summarising key techniques and considerations. Emphasise the practical execustion of auditing and hardening tasks and comment on difficulties or lessons learned.


Assessment criteria  Your submission will be assessed against the following criteria:


Criteria  Below threshold  Grade D  Grade C  Grade B  Grade A
Security Engineering principles Little or no evidence of security thinking.

Contradictory, dangerous or misunderstood technique.

Weak security engineering with partial understanding of some key issues. Viable security thinking with understanding in most key areas. Fair understanding of risks and mitigations. Good security thinking with some flair for grasping complex risk concepts and some defences. Broad and deep understanding, holistic integrated approach, pragmatic   and balanced. Evidence of complexity thinking. Informed by best practice and relevant policy. Insightful understanding of current and emerging threats.



No technological basis for implementing the process is shown. Unrealistic implementation or poor choices of technologies. Misconfiguration or misunderstandings of tools.

No substantial plan.

A plausible set of tools and technologies with proper description of their set-up and use. Some treatment of planning and test. Extensive set of technical measures and ideas to deal with multiple threats. Evidence of research and understanding of the resources needed to deploy. A textbook deployment of state-of-the-art solution. Comprehensive, well researched proposal, with milestones, test criteria, depth, redundancy, cost and skill-set needs.
Presentation and communication of ideas Incoherent, unreadable report without structure, substantial content or references. Poorly structured and written report, lacking strong communicative skills, no use of visual or tabulated data, few or no references, or poor quality research sources. An adequate report that communicates the key ideas in an effective and concise way. References given as evidence of research reading.

Appropriate sourcing.

A good report that concisely but extensively deals with significant scope. Well researched, argued points. Good use of visuals and structure. Great referencing from well chosen high quality sources. An excellent report with well written, well informed  compelling arguments, concise and nicely structured. Clever use of compact visual devices. High quality, up to date research with excellent referencing.





Letter of Recommendation from a Dentist

Letter of Recommendation from a Dentist

Important details


Letter of Recommendation from a Dentist for a student who is applying to dental school. This student has shadowed dentist for over 6 months. Requiring a letter that is different than ordinary letter of recommendations and which contains creativity which catches reader’s attention. It should talk about studnet’s work ethic, hard work, intelligence, critical thinking ability, self-motivation, high praise from student’s coworkers, student’s organization skills, student’s extreme knowledge of dentistry, her confidence level, her ability to make patients feel relaxed and calm during anxiety dental procedures, her ability to communicate effectively with patients, her ability to create solutions to crisis situation, her attention to details, and her cheerful personality which makes her likeable among everyone.


In this scenario, this female student, XYZ, is applying to dental school and she wants her dentist who she shadowed to write her a letter of recommendation for her dental school admission application. The letter should also include the dentist’s praise for this female student because This female, XYZ, is an immigrant who is motivated to raise awareness in third world war countries among girls to educate and choose dentistry as their profession. She has also raised money to aid an organization which help girls educate and make more independent in oversees.



The letter should be creative which makes this student stand out among others.

Marketing paper

I would like to know what is the market for an app which uses deep learning to get to know you. FI would like to understand whether there is a need for this app and if so what would someone be likely to pay for it. For example, it would be an app that could ask you questions to understand you first. Questions about work, family, beliefs to understand you and your moods as well. I want this app to know me. So I would answer what job do I do?, Do I like my job?, What’s the best thing about it? What’s the worst thing about it? Is this what I am passionate about? What am I passionate about? Are my parents alive? Who was my most dominant parent and why? Do I still feel like I need to live up to their expectations? Have I ever been married? If divorced do I have children? How many are there? What are there ages? What are their names ? What would you like to achieve with the kids this year? Why?
If single am I looking for a relationship at the moment? Does my current partner support me? Who else do I get support from when I need it? When would I go to my partner for a problem? When would I go to my other support person/people? What are their names? How is your health? What would you like to achieve with your health this year? How is your sleep? Do you use data to monitor your sleep? How are your eating habits? Any health goals you would like to achieve this year? I am thinking these kinds of questions will help the app to understand you. And when you wake up and have a certain mood then it could ask you what is wrong? For eg Is it work? Sleep? Health? Kids? It could then break things down and help you understand why you are in this mood. If it knows you then it can understand how to help you. And when it keeps learning what builds your mood then it can start to offer you advice through deep learning and analytics. I want to know if there is a market out there for this. There may or may not be.

Survival Analysis project 1

Here are the data used by the researchers to monitor patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. Patients are monitored for a number of years and several factors are being investigated as associated risk to death caused by the disease.

The tracking data is in excel  file and the documentation for that data is below.


  1. Divide the follow-up period into full-year intervals and follow-up data beyond year 12, attach to year data 12. Describe through life tables the baseline data (ie, number of patients at the beginning of each year, number of patients who died during the year, number of patients who dropped out of follow-up, etc. ) Through which the probability of surviving the disease can be calculated throughout the follow-up years. Consider what is the probability of surviving each interval when you reach its beginning and what is the cumulative probability of survival from the start of follow-up to the end of each interval? Draw the survival curve accompanied by a confidence interval.


  1. Repeat using the Kaplan Meier method to estimate the cumulative survival curve. Is the graph similar to the one you got in section 1? If they did not offer a reason for the differences. What is the median survival time? And what is the cumulative survival estimate for a period of 3, 5, and 9 years? Consider a 95% confidence interval for these estimates.


  1. What is the hazard estimate for a death event at each one-year interval? Draw the hazard curve over 12 years.


  1. What is the estimate of the cumulative probability of death until the end of a 3, 5, and 9 year period? And what is the cumulative hazard estimate for these years?


  1. Under the exponential model assumption, what is the annual risk of death? And under this model assumption, what is the cumulative survival estimate for a period of 3, 5, and 9 years? Consider these estimates as a 95% confidence interval.


  1. Under the exponential model assumption, draw (plots) the cumulative probability estimates for survival until the end of each year during the follow-up years. Take a look at these annual probability data to answer the question of whether the exponential model fits the survival data.


  1. Divide the age variable into two groups: up to 49.99 the younger group and the 50+ adult group. Draw the cumulative survival curve for the two age groups.


  1. Statistically examined the null hypothesis that the survival curve in these two age groups is the same.



  1. Is there a relationship between gender and age variables? If so, does this affect the null hypothesis test that the survival curves in both age groups are the same?


  1. Does the result change if you give higher weight to the observations at the start of the tracking time? Does the new test show a larger chi2 value compared to that obtained from the log rank test? Explain.


  1. There are actually four age groups:

1 = 39.99 – 25

40 – 49.99 = 2

50 – 59.99 = 3

60+ = 4

Does this change the findings and conclusions you reached in Questions 8-9.


  1. An argument has been made that bilirubin and albumin values ​​(as continuous variables) are associated with the risk of death in these patients. Using the COX model, examine the relationship between bilirubin and albumin levels with the risk of death among patients. Consider the results in terms of direction, effect size and significance. Are the relationships between these two variables and the risk of death independent? Explanation.     Are these relationships confused (effect of confounding) by sex and age variables (dichotomous scale – see section 7)?


  1. Review the COX model to examine the relationship between bilirubin level and risk of death. This time, set the low bilirubin levels (0.1-0.999) as the reference group and compare it to the other two counting groups (medium 1.01-2.999 and high +3.01). Consider the findings in terms of direction, effect size and significance. Are there any differences between the results of this model and all the results you obtained using the previous model (Section 12. The albumin variable remains in a continuous scale). Explain the results.


  1. Using the COX model, examine the relationship between bilirubin and albumin values ​​(as continuous variables) and the risk of death in patients when you also include the sex and age variables (dichotomous scale – see section 7) and two interaction variables, one between sex and bilirubin values ​​and the other between gender and values. Albumin. Do one or more of the interaction variables contribute to the fit of the model. Once the appropriate model is selected, are the results obtained using it different from the results obtained in Section 12. Explain the result.


  1. Draw the survival curve from a COX model for 2 age groups (young and old – see question 7) with the values ​​adjusted for bilirubin and albumin sex values ​​(see model in question 12). Is the result different from the one you got in questions 7-8 about comparing the survival curves in these two age groups?


  1. Check whether the bilirubin and albumin variables meet the proportional hazard assumption of the COX model or are time-dependent variables. Test this using a model in which the two variables are in a continuous scale, and the model also includes the age variable in the dichotomous scale (question 7) and the sex variable.


  1. Write down the equation of the COX model for the hazard rate according to the results obtained in question 16.


  1. State whether the following assumptions apply to using this model:


The risk is proportional: True / False / Unknown

The observations are independent: true / false / unknown

The hazard is constant over time: True / False / Unknown