Smoking In Public. Argumentative Essay

Argumentative
Essays
Tiffin University
Presented by Lynne Wagner
What is an argument?
1. An argument is a REASONED, logical
way of demonstrating the writer’s
position, belief, or conclusion is valid.
2. Arguments seek to make people believe
that something is true or to persuade
people to change their beliefs or
behavior.

5 Tips For Supporting
Claims in an
Argumentative Essay
1. Introduce precise claims
2. Develop claims and counterclaims
3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link
4. Establish and maintain formal tone
5. Provide concluding statement
Identify your thesis or
argument in a yes/no fashion.
Distinguish YOUR claims
from alternative or counter
claims.
Create organization that
establishes relationship
between claims,
counterclaims, reasons, and
evidence.

Develop claims and
counterclaims in detail.
Supply evidence for eachpointing out strengths and
limitations of both.
Anticipate readers’
knowledge level and
concerns.

Link the major sections of text
Create cohesion
Clarify the relationship between
claims & reasons
Clarify the relationship between
reasons & evidence
Clarify the relationship
between claims &
counterclaims

Establish and maintain a
formal style of writing.
Establish and maintain an
objective tone.
Attend to the norms and
conventions for APA citations.

Provide a concluding
statement that supports
the argument presented.
Provide a concluding
statement that reinforces
your viewpoint.
Provide a summary of the
claims.

Argument vs. Persuasion
A persuasive essay
May make claims based on opinion
May not take opposing ideas into account
Persuades by appealing to the audience’s emotion
or by relying on the character or credentials of
the writer – less on the merits of the his/her
reasons and evidence

Argument vs. Persuasion
An argumentative essay
Makes claims based on factual evidence
Makes counter-claims. The author takes opposing
views into account.
Neutralizes or “defeat” serious opposing ideas
Convinces audience through the merit and
reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered
Logic-based
Often compares texts or ideas to establish position

Key Terms
Claim
Counterclaim
Rebuttal
Support
Refute
Qualify
Claim
Your basic belief about:
A particular topic
A particular issue
A particular event
A particular idea

Counterclaim
A solid argument that OPPOSES your claim
A solid argument that DISAGREES with your claim
This is KEY for identifying problem spots!

Rebuttal
A written or verbal response to a counterclaim.
The object is take into account the ideas presented in
the counterclaim and explain WHY they aren’t:
persuasive enough
valid enough
important enough
The object is take into account the ideas presented in
the counterclaim and explain WHY can’t outweigh
your claim.

Support
Specific facts used to support your claim
Specific evidence used to support your claim
Support can be found in numerous sources:
Articles
Reports
Research projects
Census
Court cases

Refute
Argue against a position
Prove a position to be wrong

Qualify
A “partly-agree” stance in which you agree
(IN PART) with another argument or position
You need to state how or why you disagree with parts
of another argument or position
This is a great way of introducing your counterclaims!

Things to double check
Support
Make sure all examples and details support your claims
Unity
Does all of your evidence lead to a logical conclusion?
Cohesiveness
Do you have a clearly defined relationship between
claims, counterclaims, evidence, etc?