PHI 1: Introduction to Philosophy

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PHI 1: Introduction to Philosophy Name____________________
Final Exam
UC Davis // Winter 2019
Form A
Choose the
one best answer.
1. Can a valid argument have a false conclusion? (Give the one best answer.)
2. Is it possible that all of a sound argument’s premises are true while its conclusion is false?
3. The example discussed in lecture involving one million perfect duplicates of Hitler was meant to show that
4. Compatibilists say that:
5. According to the Indiscernibility of Identicals,
6. Consider this simple memory theory of personal identity:
x is the same person as y if and only if x can
remember y’s thoughts.
Thomas Reid’s counterexample concerning the transitivity of identity shows:
7. According to Shoemaker, the brain transfer case is problematic for the body theory of personal identity
because:
Argument (i) [Note: According to Wikipedia, “Dylann Storm Roof (born April 3, 1994) is an American white
supremacist and mass murderer convicted for perpetrating the Charleston church shooting on June 17, 2015
in the U.S. state of South Carolina.”]

P1 An action A is morally permissible if and only if no other action that is open to the agent of A at the
time of A has a greater utility than A does.

P2 All human actions are causally determined by events in the distant past.

P3 If all human actions are causally determined by events in the distant past, then for any human action
A that is actually performed, no other action aside from A is open to the agent of A at the time of A.

P4 If, for any human action A that is actually performed, no other action aside from A is open to the
agent of A at the time of A, then for any human action A that is actually performed, no other action
that is open to the agent of A has a greater utility than A does.
P5 Dylann Roof’s firing on church-goers is a human action that was actually performed.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

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: . Dylann Roof’s firing on church-goers was morally permissible.
Most of us will want to say that this conclusion is false. But if the conclusion is false, there must be some
specific problem with Argument (i). Different philosophical positions yield different verdicts about where
the argument goes wrong.
8. According to libertarianism (interpreted as a view about free will, not as a political view), the argument
goes wrong in the following way:
9. According to non-consequentialist ethical theories, such as a theory that includes the Doctrine of Double
Effect or Foot’s Principle about Positive and Negative Duties,
10. Assume that you are a utilitarian and a soft determinist. Assume that you grant that the Roof shooting
was a human action that was actually performed. Assume that you deny the conclusion of Argument (i).
Holding all that fixed, which of following should you consider to be the best criticism of Argument (i)?
11. According to the lectures
12. According to the lectures
13. Soft determinists and libertarians agree that
14. Soft determinists and hard determinists agree that
15. Libertarians and hard determinists agree that
16. Suppose that, unbeknownst to me, the soul of a WWI war criminal was attached to my body at birth. At
first glance at least, according to the __________________ of personal identity, I should be held responsible
for the war criminal’s actions because _________________.
17. The Body Theory faces a potential problem (discussed in lecture) involving corpses. According to the
given argument against the Body Theory:
18. Suppose that Nestor was an ancient Greek warrior who committed many crimes. Further, suppose that I
exist in 2018 and have no memory of doing what Nestor did. Finally, suppose that Nestor and I have the
same soul. It follows that:
19. Suppose that I begin my life in one body,
body1, but that later in life my brain is transplanted into a
different body,
body2. Further, suppose that after the transplant, I wake up the next morning and have body2
as my body (but I continue to have my same old brain). It follows that:

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20. In lecture, we discussed one main argument against the Memory Theory of Personal Identity, an
argument which did not apply to the Psychological Continuity Theory of Personal Identity. According to that
argument:
21. Shoemaker’s Brown/Brownson argument, if successful, would show that sameness of body is _______
for personal identity. (According to Shoemaker, there are two bodies in the case: Body B and Body R. Brown
has Body B on day 1 and Robinson has Body R on day 1. On day 2, after the brain transplant, Brown, not
Robinson, has Body R, and Brown no longer has Body B , according to Shoemaker.)
22. What does Descartes think that he has accomplished in the
Cogito?
23. Why did Russell find the
Cogito unconvincing?
24. What, according to Gilmore, is the problem with Russell’s objection to the Cogito?
25. According to the Principle of the Diversity of Discernibles,
26. On the topic of the relation between the mind and the body, Descartes was a
27. If you hold that mental events are never identical to physical events and that physical events cause mental
events whereas mental events never cause physical events, then you are:
28. The main difference between substance dualism and property dualism is that:
29. According to Patricia Churchland, Frank Jackson’s knowledge argument tries to show that physicalism is
false on the grounds that
30. When Churchland says that argument (A), as she labels it in her paper, ‘begs the very question at issue’,
she means that argument (A)
31. According to Churchland, the Knowledge Argument
32. What, according to Churchland, will happen when Mary is released from her black and white room?
33. What, according to the lectures, is
being spherical (assuming that there is such an entity)?
34. Which of the following is the best example of a property, according to the lectures?
35. Which of the following is the best example of an event, according to the lectures?
36. Which of the following is the best example of a relation, according to the lectures?
37. [TBD]
38. [TBD]
The Causal Closure Argument for Materialism
1. Every physical event, if it has a full cause, is fully caused by
other physical events. (induction
from years of progress in physics, chemistry, biology, cognitive science . . . )
2. Bodily movements are often at least
partially caused by mental events.
3. Bodily movements are not systematically causally overdetermined.

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4. If [1], [2], and [3], then each mental event is a physical event.
5. If each mental event is a physical event, then Materialism is true.
6. So, Materialism is true.
39. According to the lecture, if an interactionist dualist accepted premise (1) of the above argument, then
he/she would probably respond to the argument by
40. According to the lecture, if an epiphenomenalist or parallelist dualist accepted premise (1) of the above
argument, then he/she would probably respond to the argument by
.
41. What does Parfit mean when he says that ‘personal identity is not what matters’?
42. What does it means to say, about a relation R, that it is transitive?
In the next four questions, an argument is presented in paragraph form, and your goal is to determine how
best to put that argument into standard form, in accordance with the guidelines that we have followed in this
course. Other things being equal, when putting an argument into standard form, one’s reconstruction should
fit a valid pattern, it should correctly identify the intended conclusion, it should avoid idle premises, and it
should capture as much of the reasoning in the given passage as possible.
43. Passage A. The process of dying may be bad for a person, since dying may be painful. But this
occurs while the person is still alive. And of course the death of one person may be bad for another
person – e.g., the loved ones of the deceased. But being dead is not bad for the person who is dead.
When a person is dead, he or she no longer exists, only those who exist can be in pain.
44. Passage B. Abortion is immoral. Fetuses are innocent people, so every abortion is an act of killing
an innocent person. But every act of killing an innocent person is morally wrong.
45. Passage C. All abortions are actions in which a person does what they choose with their own body.
And every action in which a person does what they choose with their own body is a morally permissible
action. This shows that the standard pro-choice position is correct.
46. Passage D. One problem with the non-branching psychological continuity theory of personal identity
is that it yields the result that none of us was ever a 10th-week fetus. And regardless of what one thinks
about the morality of abortion, it should be obvious that I was once a 10th-week fetus. But, since that
10th-week fetus did not have the requisite mental or psychological capacities, I am not now
psychologically continuous with any 10th-week fetus.

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Consider the following argument:

P1 In the past, whenever we have made an abductive inference from true premises and
have been able to independently check the conclusion afterwards, we have
discovered that the conclusion was true.
So, the next time we make an abductive inference from true premises and are able
C

to independently check the conclusion later, we will discover that the conclusion is
true
.
47. This is an example of:
Consider this dialogue:
X: It’s highly probable that the next electron I measure will have mass M.
Y: Why do you think that?
X: Because I and many others have measured many electrons, and so far, every electron that
has been measured has been found to have mass M, and I accept the principle that the
future will be like the past.
Y: But what’s your justification for that principle?
X: That principle is justified inductively. In the past, most later states of the world have turned
out to resemble earlier states, in the relevant ways.
48. According to our discussion of skepticism about the future, what is the main problem with X’s final reply
to Y?
49. According to the lectures, Frankfurt cases are meant to show that
50. According to the Ability Response to Jackson
s Knowledge Argument,

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